Anatomy of the Fluorescence Microscope
Fluorescence microscopes have evolved with speed over the past decade, coupled to equally rapid advances in laser technology, solid-state detectors, interference thin film fabrication, and computer-based image analysis.
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Reflected Darkfield Illumination
One of the most effective ways to improve contrast in the reflected light microscope is to utilize darkfield illumination. In reflected darkfield microscopy, an opaque occluding disk is placed in the path of the light traveling through the vertical illuminator so that only the peripheral rays of light reach the deflecting mirror.
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Reflected Light Microscopy
Reflected light microscopy is often referred to as incident light, epi-illumination, or metallurgical microscopy, and is the method of choice for fluorescence and for imaging specimens that remain opaque even when ground to a thickness of 30 microns.
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Anatomy of a Microscope - Image Brightness
Regardless of the imaging mode utilized in optical microscopy, image brightness is governed by the light-gathering power of the objective, which is a function of numerical aperture.
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Köhler Illumination - Köhler Illumination in Transmitted Light
Adjustment of a transmitted light microscope for Köhler illumination is a logical and relatively easy process that should be practiced until mastered by all serious students of microscopy.
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Köhler Illumination - Light Sources
Early microscopists relied on oil lamps and natural sunlight to provide an external source of illumination for their primitive (but often remarkably accurate) microscopes.
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