Anatomy of the Fluorescence Microscope
Fluorescence microscopes have evolved with speed over the past decade, coupled to equally rapid advances in laser technology, solid-state detectors, interference thin film fabrication, and computer-based image analysis.
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Hoffman Modulation Contrast Basics
The featured section serves as an introduction to the basic concepts in modulation contrast microscopy with numerous illustrations and examples of how the technique is implemented.
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Fluorescence and DIC Combination Microscopy
Fluorescence microscopy can be combined with contrast enhancing techniques, such as differential interference contrast (DIC) and phase contrast illumination, to minimize the effects of photobleaching.
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Comparison of Phase Contrast and DIC Microscopy
The most fundamental distinction between differential interference contrast and phase contrast microscopy is the optical basis upon which images are formed.
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DIC Microscope Configuration and Alignment
DIC components can be installed on virtually any brightfield transmitted, reflected, or inverted microscope, provided the instrument is able to accept polarizing filters and the specially designed condenser and objective prisms.
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Fundamental Concepts in DIC Microscopy
Through a mechanism different from phase contrast, differential interference contrast converts specimen optical path gradients in o amplitude differences that can be visualized as improved contrast in the resulting image.
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Brief Overview of DIC Microscopy
In the mid-1950s, a French optics theoretician named Georges Nomarski modified the Wollaston prism used for detecting optical gradients in specimens and converting them in o intensity differences.
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Reflected Darkfield Illumination
One of the most effective ways to improve contrast in the reflected light microscope is to utilize darkfield illumination. In reflected darkfield microscopy, an opaque occluding disk is placed in the path of the light traveling through the vertical illuminator so that only the peripheral rays of light reach the deflecting mirror.
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