CMOS image sensors are designed with the ability to integrate a number of processing and control functions, which lie beyond the primary task of photon collection, directly onto the sensor integrated circuit.
Digital image processing enables virtually noise-free modification of an image in the form of a matrix of integers instead of the classical darkroom manipulations necessary for analog images and video signals.
Fluorescence microscopes have evolved with speed over the past decade, coupled to equally rapid advances in laser technology, solid-state detectors, interference thin film fabrication, and computer-based image analysis.
When coupled to the optical microscope, fluorescence enables investigators to study a phenomena in cellular biology. Foremost is the analysis of intracellular distribution of specific macromolecules in sub-cellular assemblies.
DIC components can be installed on virtually any brightfield transmitted, reflected, or inverted microscope, provided the instrument is able to accept polarizing filters and the specially designed condenser and objective prisms.
When imaging specimens in the optical microscope, differences in intensity and/or color create image contrast, which allows individual features and details of the specimen to become visible. Contrast is defined as the difference in light intensity between the image and the adjacent background relative to the overall background intensity. In general, a minimum contrast value of 0.02 (2 percent) is needed by the human eye to distinguish differences between the image and its background.