CMOS image sensors are designed with the ability to integrate a number of processing and control functions, which lie beyond the primary task of photon collection, directly onto the sensor integrated circuit.
Digital image processing enables virtually noise-free modification of an image in the form of a matrix of integers instead of the classical darkroom manipulations necessary for analog images and video signals.
Fluorescence microscopes have evolved with speed over the past decade, coupled to equally rapid advances in laser technology, solid-state detectors, interference thin film fabrication, and computer-based image analysis.
When coupled to the optical microscope, fluorescence enables investigators to study a phenomena in cellular biology. Foremost is the analysis of intracellular distribution of specific macromolecules in sub-cellular assemblies.
DIC components can be installed on virtually any brightfield transmitted, reflected, or inverted microscope, provided the instrument is able to accept polarizing filters and the specially designed condenser and objective prisms.
Through a mechanism different from phase contrast, differential interference contrast converts specimen optical path gradients into amplitude differences that can be visualized as improved contrast in the resulting image.